Apr 20, (a) KITAB-UL-HIND was written by AL-BIRUNI in Arabic language KITAB-UL- HIND is simple and lucid and a voluminous text divided into 80 chapters on. Sep 30, Most of the works of Al-Biruni are in Arabic. Kitab Tarikh Al-Hind and Aims of Writing it. Al-Biruni’s Kitab-ul-Hind is simple and lucid. It is divided. were incorporated in Mahmud’s Indian army; and Al- beruni—what Geography. Kitab-almanshurdt. marching to Hind or India proper we start from the.

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The period from the Arab invasion to the Saljuqs.

Bīrūnī as a source for the study of Indian culture and history | Noemie Verdon –

He also notes the religious beliefs of peoples of India. These guilds, we are informed do not live with the rest of the community and generally had their living quarters on the periphery or outskirts of towns and villages. This site uses cookies. Moreover, Hindus in 11th century India had suffered through waves of destructive attacks on many of its cities, and Islamic armies had taken numerous Hindu slaves to Persia which, claimed Al-Biruni, contributed to Hindus becoming suspicious of all foreigners, not just Muslims.

The phenomena of statics were studied by using the dynamic approach so that two trends — statics and dynamics — turned out to be inter-related within a single science, mechanics. Retrieved August 20, Biruni also came up with different hypotheses about heat and light. He deduced its existence on the basis of his accurate estimations of the Earth’s circumference and Afro-Eurasia ‘s size, which he found spanned only two-fifths of the Earth’s circumference, and his discovery of the concept of specific gravityfrom which he deduced that the geological processes that gave rise to Eurasia must’ve also given rise to lands in the vast ocean between Asia and Europe.


Retrieved from ” https: These customs amuses and sometimes horrifies Alberuni.

Pls guide how can I see the answers? D Tamils were trading extensively with S. In his Chronology of Ancient Na- tion, compiled in A. Most of the works of Al-Biruni are in Arabic although he wrote one of his masterpieces, the Kitab al-Tafhim apparently in both Persian and Arabic, showing his mastery over both languages. He speaks of the existence of eight classes of people outside the varna order, segregated in accordance with their occupation and guilds.

Through The Eyes Of Travellers

Or were they used globally in many provinces of al-Hind? Thirdly, Indians, especially the Malabar people traded extensively via coastal routes with a variety of cultures including Berruni and Chinese. Criticisms To Al-Beruni the Hindus were excellent philosophers, good mathematicians and astronomers, though [out of a certain self-confidence] he believes himself to be superior to them, and disdains to be put on a level with them.

I find it truly amazing and very useful in history optional preparation. He admired the Hindu civilisation but was critical of the attitude of the scholars and the dichotomy between the scientific awareness and ignorance that existed side by side among the Hindus.

There existed a flow of written documents — books, calendars and letters? You are commenting using your WordPress.

The result of his discovery of radius measurement was due to Biruni’s arduous research about the earth. Precisely such a check was provided to the Sl society, in the eleventh century, by an Iranian Muslim scholar, Al-Biruni, who was perhaps a hostage at the court of Mahmud of Ghazani. Click here to sign up. But he goes on to argue that similar errors occur in other religious traditions.


He records with a fair degree of accuracy, the date of the conquest of Somnath by Sultan Mahmud, and also noted its exact location and the legend behind the building of the temple.

Al-Beruni and the Kitab al-Hind

Retrieved 22 June Notify me jind new posts via email. Thank u sir I expect you would post remaining syllabus materials with same quality and concern.

However, he was also critical about the ways in which these texts were written, and clearly wanted to improve on them. As Al-Beruni was born outside the city in a suburban area he was given epithet of Al-Beruni.

They are by nature niggardly in communicating that which they know, and they take the greatest possible care to withhold it from men of another caste among their own people, still much more, of course, from any foreigner.

The question of his freedom of movements has to be raised as well. He explains that Hinduism and Islam are totally different from each other. He sought to find a method to measure the height of the sun, and created an early version of an astrolabe for that purpose.