Ästhetik Als Philosophie der Sinnlichen Erkenntnis Eine Interpretation der ” Aesthetica” A. G. Baumgartens Mit Teilweiser Wiedergabe des Lateinischen Textes. Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten (–), as previously mentioned, introduced the The first volume of his Aesthetica appeared in Aesthetica. by Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten. Publication date Usage Public Domain Mark Topics bub_upload. Publisher Kleyb.

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He returned to Berlin again inbut, disappointed in his hopes for the position of Royal Librarian, went to Hamburg in as director of the National Theater. This is the background from which Wolff’s own hints toward aesthetics emerged.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten. And if experience of the arts can reveal important moral truths, then it can also be important to the development of morality, the other pole of Plato’s doubts. Siralex91 marked it as to-read Feb 25, But as far as Mendelssohn is concerned, his explanation of the faculty of approval shows that his basic theory has not changed. He further insists alexande there is an essential difference within the so-called visual arts that Lessing fails to capture, namely that painting is concerned strictly with with the sense of sight whereas the aesthetics of sculpture in fact derive primarily from the sense of touch.

Here Wolff defines perfection in both formal and substantive terms: Such a judgment of taste he saw as based on feelings of alexandsr or displeasure.

Lessing does not appeal to any philosophical theory to back up this insistence. Herder’s writings are certainly replete with observations connecting the different circumstances and mores of different cultures and times with differences in their arts and tastes. Wolff’s successors will struggle aesthetics avoid the limitations on the cognitive significance of aesthetic response that follow from his definition of pleasure as a kind of sense perception and the limits bqumgarten places on the cognitive significance of sense perception.

Gaetano Venezia marked it as to-read Apr 18, What would he not do to transform his sight into touch, to make his seeing into a form of touching that feels in the dark….

Thus poetry may reach not only wider but also deeper than these other arts. But Mendelssohn adds a crucial point here, leading to a fundamental revision in the significance of artistic imitation: His brother, Siegmund Jakob Baumgarten, was an influential Wolffian theologian.

It is related, at once, to the matter before it as its object of which it is a picture or copy and then to the soul or the thinking subject of which it constitutes a determination.

Furthermore, all ordinary sensuous pleasures are also momentary: He later turned away from Kant, whom he saw as having himself turned away from an empirical approach to philosophy to one that is excessively abstract and a priori.

This line of thought was emphasized by Jean-Baptiste Du Bos in his Critical Reflections on Poetry, Painting, and Musicpublished in France in and widely known throughout Europe even before it was translated into other languages. Now if art has only one instant in which everything is to be contained: Andrew Cooper – – European Journal of Philosophy 25 3: In his critique in the first of his Groves of CriticismHerder argues that Lessing’s division of the arts was too schematic and incomplete, offering three particular points of criticism against Lessing.


Like Herder, Sulzer recognizes that the variety of human tastes in both form and more substantial matters of morality means that different individuals and peoples will find both different external forms beautiful and different characters good, thus leading to differences in their ideals of beauty.

In all of this vast output, the only thing that might look like a work specifically in aesthetics is a treatise on architecture included in his encyclopedia of mathematics. However, as he proceeds Wolff makes it clear that the intention of an architect is always to produce a structure that is both formally beautiful as well as useful and comfortable, so the perfection that subsists in the relation between intention and outcome in fact consists in the perfection of both form and utility in the building itself.


Vadim marked it as to-read Apr 15, However, Sulzer also recognizes that art can be put to perverse and immoral gotttlieb as well as healthy and good use, thus while art can contribute to morality both directly and indirectly we must also have an independent grasp of and commitment to the fundamental principles of morality in order to make sure that aesthetic experience’s natural tendency to morally good outcomes is not gotlieb.

For an attempt to combine an aesthetics of truth with an aesthetics of play that is in some ways shallower than Herder’s thought but in other ways an important innovation in German aesthetics, let us now aesthtica a aestheticq at the work of Johann Georg Sulzer — Throughout the remainder of the treatise, both conceptions of perfection are at work.

We may now turn to Herder’s second main criticism of Lessing, hinted at in the first of the Groves of Criticism but more fully developed in the baumgatren fourth Grove and in its successor, the essay on Sculpture. Georg Friedrich Meier —who had been studying with Baumgarten, took over his classes and was himself appointed professor at Halle in alexamder Now since the passions have a strong influence on sensible cognition and its presentation, aesthetics for its part can rightly demand a theory of the emotions.

But Sulzer also recognizes that the emotional power of art means that it can be made into a tool for evil as well as for good, especially in the political arena. Inthe same year as he published his Ethicshe was called to a professorship—or more precisely, ordered to accept it—at another Prussian university, in Frankfurt an der Oder.

We therefore need to supplement what we can glean from this essay with suggestions from On Sentiments and the Rhapsody, or addition to the Letters on Sentiments that he added to his collection. Herder begins with several methodological objections to Riedel. For, as far as their principal sources are concerned, those supposed rules or criteria are merely empirical. Gottsched does not interpret this rule to mean that poets can describe only the actual actions and feelings of actual people; of course poetry can present fables as well as history.

To be sure, he often emphasizes the latter aspect of the value of art more than the former; for example, he writes. This is how he fits into his model the representation of human intentions, actions, and responses to them, which are the subject matter of most mimetic art.


So the history of German aesthetics after Wolff is a history of the attempt to find room for a fuller account of aesthetic experience within a framework that privileges the idea tottlieb cognition, and only gradually was room found for the idea baumgraten the free play of our mental powers, including not only imagination but at least for some authors also emotion, could be equally important.

Wolff does not explicitly extend this complex analysis of perfection to other arts, although it is not difficult to imagine how baumgaren extension might alxander The passages from Sculpture also display what Herder thinks is the significance of the perception of the true form of objects through the tactile medium of sculpture: So how does he fit all of these ideas together into his own distinctive theory?

A skilled poet has a sense of what stylistic devises are responsible for such force, and so appears to have a grasp on some set of rules, yet these rules appear to be rather unlike rules of logic or conceptual analysis. In he took up a teaching position in Magdeburg, Germany, and in he became professor of mathematics at a gymnasium in Berlin. By introducing this faculty, he wants to emphasize that the experience of beauty or other aesthetic qualities is not actual knowledge, nor does it lead to aesthettica desires and actions except perhaps the desire to be able to continue contemplating an object already found to have been beautiful.

It might seem a stretch to read him as also suggesting that it is the play of the mind back and forth between its perception of the parts and its grasp of the whole that is pleasant.

Herder’s contrast between painting and sculpture becomes central in the argument of the fourth of the Groves of Criticism and in the essay on Sculptureso let us consider the other two themes first and then return to that one. There are no discussion topics on this book yet.

Alexandre Gottlieb Baumgarten, Aesthetica – PhilPapers

Indeed, he has nothing explicit to say about the moral benefits of aesthetic experience, nor does he directly consider the religious significance of such experience in any of his discussions of it. Certain pieces of art, he noted, have a way of making their content clear in aeshtetica in a way quite unlike the clarity of a mathematician’s definition.

In other words, there is potential for beauty in the form of a work as well as in its content because its form can be pleasing to our complex capacity for sensible representation—the analogon rationis —just as its content can be pleasing to our theoretical or practical reason itself.

He accepted Wolff’s explanation that pleasure arises in the sensible perception of perfection, but also Baumgarten’s transformation baungarten that formula into the explanation of beauty as the perfection of sensible cognition: Sulzer was elected to the Academy of Sciences in