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Surely, cultural and artistic contexts alter not only the transmission of fixed message content but its recpetion as well. The rebellion against the new cosmopolitanism assumed again the form of “nativism” or “Americanism. A look at their social and economic position can clarify the reasons for their decisions. Many writers, however, have not seen these same traits united in Lugones’ poetry. In this regard, Lugones’ appropriation of Laforgue’s work is an important case in point.

It is this reception or reading of texts in different contexts that produces “aberrant” texts or misreadings. Single figures draw the focus, rather than panoramic scenes. This situation of the bourgeois State determined in the last instance the libertarian, anti-state and anti-nationalist aspect of the Vallejoo avant-garde since that period, whatever the variations of its concrete political positions across the established parties and movements, from the liberals najwra the anarchists.

In an earlier article, the criticism is more explicit. Instead of innocent apdender we find a system of clever resources, a game of rhetorical skill.

Writing about commonplace events provides practice vallejk less mundane efforts:. Its base, its merit, its dignity. In tracing the sign system of Lugones to previous and coexisting ones, as well as tracing the pattern of perception and rearrangement of these sign systems, it must be remembered that certain signs may be emptied of their original content and forced to function as different signals in a different context.

He will draw together disparate elements under the composition of a grand portrait. The poets of modernismo shut the door to their garden of delights. We find it hard to move around these ornately furnished rooms and especially amidst the heavy-lidded goddesses.

Las halar no hacen familia en la mente, como antes, ni larga vida. As innovators within late modernismo, both Lugones and Herrea y Reissig insert moments of the colloquial or the ridiculous in modernismo ‘s stylized scenes and, even more importantly, carry the imitation of their models such as Albert Yoy and Jules Laforgue to heights of frenzy.


Juan Antonio Vallejo-Nágera

Why do contemporary readers dismiss modernismo as an ossified movement? In this vein, a general tendency in Spanish American criticism has been to lump together all modernista writers under the label “rubenista” and to assume that the enclosure of the rich poetic forms of modernismo were prisons from which more recent poets have needed to liberate themselves. Yet such an analogy illustrates aprended of the paradoxical spirit of cosmopolitismo embraced by the poets of the moment.


With the advent of photography and other means of reproduction, literature seemed to be losing its hold on the quasi-mystical role assigned to the artist. As Lugones draws back again to achieve panoramic balance, the colloquial phrases and prosaic moments will be integrated into an encompassing view of the “patria” or “homeland.

A travel grant from the Berkeley Center for Latin American Studies allowed me to consult libraries and archives in Argentina and Uruguay. In this way they prepare, each one in his own. Among the critics who have interpreted the nature of this artistic as well as social phenomenon, some have concentrated more on the socioeconomic aspect of its web, while others have sought its secrets in the rich texture of surging aesthetic theories and practices current in Europe at the time.

This reconciliation was to be followed by a reordering of other categories, thus creating new ways of viewing the world. His range of choices resembles that of other modernistas, but the structure of his ideology determined a degree of acceptance of current literary theories and models different from other modernistas.

Su soporte, su esclarecimiento, su compostura. As Rama points out, “Por el momento, el ‘mercado’ literario no exist??? This type of criticism centers on the rebellious aspects of the movement, its attempt to break away from the models and archetypes of Spain and the colonial heritage. As Pierre Bourdieu suggests, [23] the way we design our living spaces reflects and determines our ways of ordering the metaphors by which we live.

Any study of the historical context of modernismo must be attentive to the massive changes that took place in the late nineteenth century. They break with a world view profoundly influenced by romanticism and its artistic legacy.

With the nineteenth century’s emphasis on the idea of romantic “genius,” of the specially selected transmitter of spiritual energy or revelations, the classical division of public and private languages breaks down. If one accepts her explanation of the fetishization of art as a reordering of the hierarchies of discourse patterns, larger meanings associated with the najear of art and the preference for aristocratic models emerge:. The home is the place of the Self, the city, [the place of] the Other.

In the work of Lugones, one sees from the earliest writings of a push toward the breakup of models, including his inherited poetic tradition as well as social structures.

Aprendee postmodernista rejections, exaggerations, and parings-down of modernismo ‘s stock images and procedures, we can trace the shifting points of view that were already present in the construction of modernismo ‘s seemingly fixed scenes. The spatial dimensions of modernista scenes give an idea of the rearrangement of values that romanticism linked with organic form.


Things proliferate, but precisely because they appear not in a net of relations which reflect reality, but in an immediate, poetic code which joins them together. Dealing with a sn of culturally valued icons usually derived from a European, especially French, context, the Spanish American writer has often been seen in a position of dependence. Is there a unifying personality behind the creative process, or is his work merely a succession of very skilled copyings and reworkings of the material offered to Lugones by his epoch?

He stresses the nonreferential aspects of language, comparing poetry to music rather than to other denotative systems:. Every artifice is production, not nature; product, not process.

The late nineteenth century refuses even more the notion of writer as public spokesperson, either as legitimizer or adversary—critic of society. The different stages in Lugones’ view of the function of poetry, majera seen in his expository prose and in the poetry itself, may be termed an “evolution” in the sense that the changes in the theory and practice of poetry show a process of adaptation to model texts in circulation.

Many see the return to poetic orthodoxy in the period after as a sign of his growing identification with the ruling class.

The Dissonant Legacy of Modernismo

This is surely not the direction foreseen by the modernistas, but Lugones’ development gives us clues to a way certain ideologies speak through poetic form and poetic movements, and not only in their changing thematics. One may look for a disruptive or questioning movement on other levels, however. Seeing the preceding generation’s interest in the past as a conservative tendency, it is not surprising that the modernistas would turn away from those models, since their social values were not aligned with those of the previous controlling classes.

Publishers found it more convenient and less costly to copy foreign works for which they did not have to pay royalties, and they were assured of a readership by the already established fame of major European writers:. By directing attention to language as a technical instrument, Lugones initiates a dissonant trend in modern Spanish American poetry.

The modernistas were seemingly shameless in the appropriation of the iconic symbols of all things exotic or distant. Within modernismo the problem of”originality” presents fascinating perspectives.

I learned to gnaw my bone well, following Rabelais’ advice, as well as to weed my originals and prune my sentences. The identification of the many influences on his thought and poetry has already been accomplished.