The autofrettage process is widely used in various industries for increasing operating pressures for advanced industrial, automotive, aerospace and defense . The detailed numerical comparison between the two different autofrettage processes points to the fact that the swage autofrettage process is. The swage or mechanical autofrettage process is routinely used in many industries including nuclear industry, where enhanced strength-to-weight ratio is .
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The goal of autofrettage is to increase the durability of the final product.
The reason why this is possible is that the stress distribution through the walls of the tube is non-uniform. Because the outer layers remain elastic they attempt to return to their original shape; however, they are prevented from doing so completely by the new permanently stretched inner layers.
In early practice of autofrettage of a gun barrel, the barrel was pressurized hydraulically.
The term autofrettage is also used to describe a step in manufacturing of composite overwrapped pressure vessel COPV where the liner is expanded by plastic deformationinside the composite overwrap. The strain is proportional to the stress applied within the elastic limit; therefore the expansion at the outer layers is less than at the bore.
Autofrettage is a metal fabrication technique in which a pressure vessel is subjected to enormous pressurecausing internal portions of the part to yield plastically, resulting in internal compressive residual stresses once the pressure is released.
While autofrettage will induce some work hardeningthat is not the primary mechanism of strengthening. June Learn how and when to remove this template message.
In modern practice, a slightly oversized die is pushed slowly through the barrel by a hydraulically driven ram. Finally, the elasticity of the barrel can be tested by applying internal pressure once more, but this time autofrettagd is taken to ensure that the inner layers are not stretched beyond their new elastic limit.
The technique has been applied to the expansion of tubular components down hole in oil and gas wells. The start point is a single steel tube of internal diameter slightly less than the desired autofrettate. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
The tube is subjected to internal pressure of sufficient magnitude to enlarge the bore and in the process the inner layers of the metal are stretched in tension beyond their elastic limit. The next step is to subject the compressively strained inner processs to a low-temperature heat treatment which results in the elastic limit being raised to at least the autofrettage pressure employed in the first stage of the process.
In addition the material has a higher tensile stress as a result of the heat treatment process. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Autofrettage – Wikipedia
The effect is that the inner layers of the autofrettae are put under compression by the outer layers in much the same way as though an outer layer of metal had been shrunk on as with a built-up gun. The technique is commonly used in manufacture of high-pressure pump cylinders, warship and tank gun barrels, and fuel injection systems for diesel engines. Retrieved from ” https: The end result is an inner proccess of the gun barrel with a residual compressive stress able to counterbalance the tensile stress that would be induced when the gun is discharged.
Archived from the original PDF on This page was last edited on 29 Octoberat From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
A residual compressive stress remains on the barrel’s inner surface, even after final honing and rifling. Views Read Edit View history. The method has been patented by the Norwegian oil service company, Meta, which uses it to connect concentric tubular components with sealing and strength properties outlined above. The amount of initial underbore and oversize of the die are calculated to strain the material around the bore past its elastic limit into plastic deformation.
Although the outer layers of the tube are also stretched, the degree of internal pressure applied during the process is such that they are not stretched beyond their elastic limit.
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Its maximum value autodrettage in the metal adjacent to the source of pressure, decreasing markedly towards the outer layers of the tube.
Inducing residual compressive stresses into materials can also increase their resistance to stress corrosion cracking ; that is, non-mechanically-assisted cracking that occurs when a material is placed in a corrosive environment in the presence of tensile stress.