Industrial furnace. Fig. 3 Schematic representation of the Kyropoulos method. Pull. Seed. Crucible. Crystal. Melt. Bottom heater. Thermal insulation. Side heater . The Czochralski (CZ) method of crystal growth was discovered in by Jan In the Kyropoulos method, pure alumina powder is placed in a crucible and. Kyropoulos method. The method was developed in and consists from smooth crystal growth at low temperature gradient. And lowered melt level.

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Today, the EFG crystal growing technique remains as simple as the process Labelle developed. The process is named for Spyro Kyropoulos, who proposed the technique in as a method to grow brittle alkali halide and alkali earth metal crystals for precision optics.

Kyropoulos process

Method for restraining bulbs in process of growing slice-shaped sapphire in guiding mold mode. Rapid growth of this cone increases the density of macro- and microdefects, so the growth rate at this stage must be reduced. The increase in radiant heat removal from the end and side surfaces of the seed crystal results in the formation of a sharp cone directed deep into the melt.

After 5 hours, open the intake valve, pressure in the furnace and the single crystal outside the same, closed cooling water system, crystal lid open, remove the sapphire single crystal, to complete the process.

When crystallization is complete, the furnace temperature and the gas flow are decreased and the crystal boule slowly anneals. A thin thread of metal hung from the tip of the pen. Method for preparing synthetic sapphire by micro-pulling and shoulder-expanding at cooled center. The Czochralski CZ method of crystal growth was discovered in by Jan Czochralski — and was the fortunate result of an accident and insightful observation.

This method is characterized by low not higher than deg. At the final stage of growth the conditions change again. And lowered melt level down and provide heat removal from the crystal with using the cooled rod. The ratio of the diameter to the height may change within the interval of 3: Today there remains significant demand for sapphire grown using the Verneuil method because it is still the least expensive way to make sapphire adequate for many applications.

EFG-produced crystal material is typically of low to medium optical quality, and can be precisely produced in different crystallographic orientations A, C, random. Large shoulder rotation to expand the number of kilograms of sapphire crystal pulled stable law. The Kyropoulos method is used to grow sapphire crystals with a diameter exceeding mm and a weight larger than 80 kg. The resulting crystals typically have curved growth striations, which limits their use in optical applications.


It is currently used by several companies around the world to produce sapphire for the electronics and optics industries. Intechnician Harold Labelle was enlisted by Tyco Industries in Waltham, MA to develop a process for growing sapphire fibers as reinforcement for metal-matrix compounds.

The process also allows for tight control over crystal orientation.

Cold core shouldering micropulling proparation method of large size sapphire single crystal. The primary use for Verneuil-grown sapphire and ruby today is still for synthetic sapphire and ruby gemstones, watch jewels and watch windows.

Unidirectional solidified silicon ingot and manufacturing method thereof, silicon plate, substrate for solar cell and target base material for sputtering. Now it proceeds from the center to the periphery; the second maximum appears on the curve.

Lytvynov, and Valerian Pishchik. Instead of dipping his pen in its inkwell, he mistakenly dipped it in the crucible and quickly pulled it out. Kyropoulos introduced his technique as a way of producing large single crystals that were free of cracks and damage due to restricted containment.

In LaBelle used his method to produce the first as-grown sapphire tubes. The furnace is evacuated and heated to melt the crackle while keeping the seed just below its melting point by passing helium gas through the heat exchanger beneath the center of the crucible. He introduced temperature control to the process to increase the size of the resulting crystals. The resulting boules can be cut to any crystallographic orientation or plane. The largest application of the Kyropoulos process is to grow large boules of single crystal sapphire used to produce substrates for the manufacture gallium nitride -based LEDsand as a durable optical material.

The resulting process was essentially a Czochralski technique with the benefit of crystal shape control. Czochralski observed that the crystallized wire was in fact a single crystal, and the process was developed.

After the cooling step after annealing holding hours, open the intake valve, pressure in the furnace and the single crystal outside the same, closed cooling water system, crystal lid open, remove the sapphire single crystal, complete the process. The long slow cooling process results in exceptional crystal quality. Alumina is melted in a crucible, and the melt ‘wets’ the surface of die and moves up by capillary attraction.


The use of such a facility some what expedites the control of the crystallization course for operators. CZ remains essentially unchanged today. Hanging the seed from a weight sensor can provide feedback to kyro;oulos the growth rate, although precise measurements are complicated by the changing and imperfect shape of the metnod diameter, the unknown convex shape of the solid-liquid mdthod, and these features’ interaction with buoyant forces and convection within the melt.

Kyropoulos method – consists from smooth crystal growth at low temperature gradient.

The growth rate is controlled by slowly kyrpooulos the temperature of the furnace until the entire melt has solidified. Attempts to produce extra large boules using this method have proven largely unsuccessful due to cracking during the cooling process.

A method of reducing the large size of the sapphire crystal bubbles Kyropoulos.

Kyropoulis contrast with the Czochralski processthe Kyropoulos process crystallizes the entire feedstock volume into the boule. Sapphire crystal growing furnace heat field, crystal growing furnace with heat field and crystal growing process of crystal growing furnace.

Method for growing large-size high-temperature oxide crystal through for top-seeded temperature gradient technique. When it was carefully pulled out, a sapphire crystal grew on the wire. This page was last edited on 2 Decemberat After 15 hours, the crystalline mass reaches 2 kg, O. Cooling method for whole kyropoulos large-sized sapphire crystal growing process. Processes of charging, vacuumizing, heating for melting, auxiliary temperature field adjustment, crystal leading, shoulder extending, shoulder contracting, equal-diameter growth, pull-off, cooling annealing and discharging are finished in a growth furnace of the large-size sapphire single crystal.

Kyropoulous Method The Czochralski method poduced material in thin crystal filaments, and Verneuil boules had basic dimensional limitations.

Method for preparing 6-inch P-type solar silicon single crystals through Czochralski method and zone melting method. The spring cancels the torsional moment of the pulling gear.